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Due Diligence Services - Phase I and Phase II

PEI performs ASTM Phase I Environmental Site Assessments (ESAs) to assess risks and liabilities associated with real estate transactions. Our staff has completed Phase I ESAs on a variety of property types ranging from greenfield sites to gasoline stations to large manufacturing facilities. PEI personnel have performed over one thousand Phase I ESAs throughout the United States. Clientele includes developers, bankers, realtors, attorneys, general contractors, demolition companies, solar companies and various other entities. In addition to complying with CERCLIS requirements, PEI has the capability to perform Phase I ESAs to supplement completion of Housing Urban Development-4128D Forms, NEPA Categorical Exclusions, NEPA Environmental Assessments and NEPA Environmental Impact Statements.  PEI performs Phase I ESAs in general accordance with ASTM Standard E 1527-13.


General Scope of Phase I ESA Services
  • Site and Area Reconnaissance

  • Regulatory Record Review
    • Perform Regulatory File Reviews of Documented Releases
    • Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Requests

  • Historical Records Review
    • Historical Aerial Photographs
    • Historical Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps
    • City Directories
    • Fire Department Records
    • Health Department Records
    • Building Records

  • Interviews
    • Current and Former Property Owners
    • Occupants
    • Fire Departments
    • State of North Carolina
    • Health Department
    • Federal, State and Local Regulators


PEI, performs Phase II environmental investigations to assess potential soil and groundwater impact from current and historic on-site or off-site contamination sources.

Our staff has completed numerous investigations to assess and delineate the lateral and vertical extent of soil and groundwater contamination at residential and commercial properties including gasoline stations, automotive repair facilities, and manufacturing and industrial facilities. Our staff has performed Phase II environmental investigations at various locations throughout the United States.

Our staff has also evaluated the potential risk of on-site and off-site contaminant plumes through completion of numerous vapor intrusion studies at sites developed with, and being evaluated for development with single family homes, multi-family residential complexes, retail and commercial buildings, medical office buildings, banks, municipal buildings, educational buildings, and manufacturing and industrial facilities.

Our staff has completed numerous regulatory investigations and remediation projects in accordance with the NCDENR UST Section Guidelines and IHSB Guidelines. PEI staff have been involved with numerous North Carolina Brownfield’s applications and investigations for sites being evaluated for redevelopment with single family and multi-family residences, retail and commercial businesses and industrial facilities.



General Scope of Phase II Services
  • Non-Regulatory Investigations
    • Soil and groundwater sampling to identify and assess potential impact from on-site and off-site contamination sources.
    • Soil gas sampling to identify and assess any vapor intrusion risks from soil and/or groundwater contamination.

  • Regulatory Investigations and Remediation
    • Underground Storage Tank Closures.
    • Phase I and Phase II Limited Site Assessments.
    • Comprehensive Site Assessment.
    • Corrective Action Plans and Remedial Action Plans.
    • Implementation of Corrective Action or Remedial Action Plan.
    • Periodic Monitoring.
    • Preparation and submittal of applicable reports.
    • Trust Fund Eligibility Applications and Reimbursement Packages

  • North Carolina Brownfield’s Investigations
    • Brownfield’s Program Applications.
    • Review of all previous regulatory information.
    • Preliminary Work Plans.
    • Soil and groundwater sampling.
    • Soil gas sampling/vapor intrusion studies.
    • Soil Management Plans or Environmental Management Plans.
    • Preparation and submittal of final report